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Referencing

WHAT IS REFERENCING? 
WHY DO WE NEED IT?

Referencing is providing your reader with evidence of where you found your information. This means they can look it up themselves if they want to read further into the topic. 

You need to reference your work so that you don’t get accused of copying from others, this is called plagiarism. Your assignments will generally go through a plagiarism checker to make sure you haven’t just hit ‘copy and paste’ from the internet! This does not mean you can’t use secondary sources of information, it just means that you need to know how to make your work your own and how to reference your sources properly. 

DIRECT VS INDIRECT

When you want to include information from a secondary source in your assignment there are two ways to do this; directly and indirectly. 

 

Direct Quotes 

  • Copying an article of text word for word

  • MUST be in quotation marks to not be considered plagiarism

  • Should be no longer than one sentence, keep it neat!

 

Indirect Quotes

  • Rewrite the information in your own words

  • No need for quotation marks


Both types of quotation require in-text citations.

REFERENCING COMES IN TWO PARTS

In-text citations - these are used within the main body of your assignment, usually just containing the name of the author, the year and other specific information such as page number (for books). 

 

Full references - these contain all of the information your reader needs to know if they want to look further into the topic, they are in the bibliography. Each type of secondary source comes with its own referencing format. 

BOOKS WITH ONE AUTHOR

Citation order:

  • Author/editor

  • Year of publication (in round brackets)

  • Title (in italics)

  • Edition (edition number if not the first edn and/or rev. edn)

  • Place of publication: Publisher

  • Series and volume number (where relevant)

In-text reference: according to Surname (Year)... OR current research suggests (Surname, Year)...

Layout:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

Example:

Bilton, H. (2010) Outdoor Learning in the Early Years: Management and Innovation. 3rd Edition. Abingdon: Routledge.

BOOKS WITH MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR
The same order applies, however there is now two or more authors to consider. These are cited in alphabetical order by surname.
 

In-text reference: according to Surname and Surname (Year)... OR current research suggests (Surname and Surname, Year)...

 

When there are four or more authors the in-text citation includes the first name, followed by ‘et al’ in italics: Surname et al (Year) talk about…

The full reference in the bibliography includes all authors of the book.

Layout:

Surname, Initial. and Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

Example:

Barnes, C., French, S., Swain, J. and Thomas, C. (2014) Disabling Barriers - Enabling Environments. 3rd Edition. London: SAGE Publications.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

At the end of your assignment you should create a reference list called a ‘Bibliography’.

 

This is where you put all of your full references. This includes the extra information that the in-text citations don’t need, such as multiple authors, full titles, URL and access dates. Your list should be sorted alphabetically for ease of use.

 

The bibliography is not included in the word count for your assignment!

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